Asynchronous Programming


In web development, asynchronous programming is notorious for being a challenging topic.

An asynchronous operation is one that allows the computer to “move on” to other tasks while waiting for the asynchronous operation to complete. Asynchronous programming means that time-consuming operations don’t have to bring everything else in our programs to a halt.

There are countless examples of asynchronicity in our everyday lives. Cleaning our house, for example, involves asynchronous operations such as a dishwasher washing our dishes or a washing machine washing our clothes. While we wait on the completion of those operations, we’re free to do other chores.

Similarly, web development makes use of asynchronous operations. Operations like making a network request or querying a database can be time-consuming, but JavaScript allows us to execute other tasks while awaiting their completion.

This lesson will teach you how modern JavaScript handles asynchronicity using the Promise object, introduced with ES6. Let’s get started!

What is a Promise?

Promises are objects that represent the eventual outcome of an asynchronous operation. A Promise object can be in one of three states:

  • Pending: The initial state— the operation has not completed yet.
  • Fulfilled: The operation has completed successfully and the promise now has a resolved value. For example, a request’s promise might resolve with a JSON object as its value.
  • Rejected: The operation has failed and the promise has a reason for the failure. This reason is usually an Error of some kind.

We refer to a promise as settled if it is no longer pending— it is either fulfilled or rejected. Let’s think of a dishwasher as having the states of a promise:

  • Pending: The dishwasher is running but has not completed the washing cycle.
  • Fulfilled: The dishwasher has completed the washing cycle and is full of clean dishes.
  • Rejected: The dishwasher encountered a problem (it didn’t receive soap!) and returns unclean dishes.

If our dishwashing promise is fulfilled, we’ll be able to perform related tasks, such as unloading the clean dishes from the dishwasher. If it’s rejected, we can take alternate steps, such as running it again with soap or washing the dishes by hand.

All promises eventually settle, enabling us to write logic for what to do if the promise fulfills or if it rejects.


Constructing a Promise Object

Let’s construct a promise! To create a new Promise object, we use the new keyword and the Promise constructor method:

const executorFunction = (resolve, reject) => { };
const myFirstPromise = new Promise(executorFunction);


The Promise constructor method takes a function parameter called the executor function which runs automatically when the constructor is called. The executor function generally starts an asynchronous operation and dictates how the promise should be settled.

The executor function has two function parameters, usually referred to as the resolve() and reject() functions. The resolve() and reject() functions aren’t defined by the programmer. When the Promise constructor runs, JavaScript will pass its own resolve() and reject() functions into the executor function.

  • resolve is a function with one argument. Under the hood, if invoked, resolve()will change the promise’s status from pending to fulfilled, and the promise’s resolved value will be set to the argument passed into resolve().
  • reject is a function that takes a reason or error as an argument. Under the hood, if invoked, reject() will change the promise’s status from pending to rejected, and the promise’s rejection reason will be set to the argument passed into reject().

Let’s look at an example executor function in a Promise constructor:

const executorFunction = (resolve, reject) => {
  if (someCondition) {
      resolve(‘I resolved!’);
  } else {
      reject(‘I rejected!’);
const myFirstPromise = new Promise(executorFunction);


Let’s break down what’s happening above:

  • We declare a variable myFirstPromise
  • myFirstPromise is constructed using new Promise() which is the Promise constructor method.
  • executorFunction() is passed to the constructor and has two functions as parameters: resolve and reject.
  • If someCondition evaluates to true, we invoke resolve() with the string ‘I resolved!’
  • If not, we invoke reject() with the string ‘I rejected!’

In our example, myFirstPromise resolves or rejects based on a simple condition, but, in practice, promises settle based on the results of asynchronous operations. For example, a database request may fulfill with the data from a query or reject with an error thrown.

The Node setTimeout() Function

Knowing how to construct a promise is useful, but most of the time, knowing how to consume, or use, promises will be key. Rather than constructing promises, you’ll be handling Promise objects returned to you as the result of an asynchronous operation. These promises will start off pending but settle eventually.

Moving forward, we’ll be simulating this by providing you with functions that return promises which settle after some time. To accomplish this, we’ll be using setTimeout(). setTimeout() is a Node API (a comparable API is provided by web browsers) that uses callback functions to schedule tasks to be performed after a delay. setTimeout() has two parameters: a callback function and a delay in milliseconds.

const delayedHello = () => {
  console.log(‘Hi! This is an asynchronous greeting!’);

setTimeout(delayedHello, 2000);


Here, we invoke setTimeout() with the callback function delayedHello() and 2000. In at least two seconds delayedHello() will be invoked. But why is it “at least” two seconds and not exactly two seconds?

This delay is performed asynchronously—the rest of our program won’t stop executing during the delay. Asynchronous JavaScript uses something called the event-loop. After two seconds, delayedHello() is added to a line of code waiting to be run. Before it can run, any synchronous code from the program will run. Next, any code in front of it in the line will run. This means it might be more than two seconds before delayedHello() is actually executed.

Let’s look at how we’ll be using setTimeout()to construct asynchronous promises:

const returnPromiseFunction = () => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(( ) => {resolve(‘I resolved!’)}, 1000);

const prom = returnPromiseFunction();


In the example code, we invoked returnPromiseFunction() which returned a promise. We assigned that promise to the variable prom. Similar to the asynchronous promises you may encounter in production, prom will initially have a status of pending.

Let’s explore setTimeout() a bit more.


Consuming Promises

The initial state of an asynchronous promise is pending, but we have a guarantee that it will settle. How do we tell the computer what should happen then? Promise objects come with an aptly named .then() method. It allows us to say, “I have a promise, when it settles, then here’s what I want to happen…”

In the case of our dishwasher promise, the dishwasher will run then:

  • If our promise rejects, this means we have dirty dishes, and we’ll add soap and run the dishwasher again.
  • If our promise fulfills, this means we have clean dishes, and we’ll put the dishes away.

.then() is a higher-order function— it takes two callback functions as arguments. We refer to these callbacks as handlers. When the promise settles, the appropriate handler will be invoked with that settled value.

  • The first handler, sometimes called onFulfilled, is a success handler, and it should contain the logic for the promise resolving.
  • The second handler, sometimes called onRejected, is a failure handler, and it should contain the logic for the promise rejecting.

We can invoke .then() with one, both, or neither handler! This allows for flexibility, but it can also make for tricky debugging. If the appropriate handler is not provided, instead of throwing an error, .then() will just return a promise with the same settled value as the promise it was called on. One important feature of .then() is that it always returns a promise.

The onFulfilled and onRejected Functions

To handle a “successful” promise, or a promise that resolved, we invoke .then() on the promise, passing in a success handler callback function:

const prom = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {

const handleSuccess = (resolvedValue) => {

prom.then(handleSuccess); // Prints: ‘Yay!’


Let’s break down what’s happening in the example code:

  • prom is a promise which will resolve to ‘Yay!’.
  • We define a function, handleSuccess(), which prints the argument passed to it.
  • We invoke prom‘s .then() function passing in our handleSuccess() function.
  • Since prom resolves, handleSuccess() is invoked with prom‘s resolved value, ‘Yay’, so ‘Yay’ is logged to the console.

With typical promise consumption, we won’t know whether a promise will resolve or reject, so we’ll need to provide the logic for either case. We can pass both an onFulfilled and onRejected callback to .then().

let prom = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  let num = Math.random();
  if (num < .5 ){
  } else {
    reject(‘Ohhh noooo!’);

const handleSuccess = (resolvedValue) => {

const handleFailure = (rejectionReason) => {

prom.then(handleSuccess, handleFailure);


Let’s break down what’s happening in the example code:

  • prom is a promise which will randomly either resolve with ‘Yay!’or reject with ‘Ohhh noooo!’.
  • We pass two handler functions to .then(). The first will be invoked with ‘Yay!’ if the promise resolves, and the second will be invoked with ‘Ohhh noooo!’ if the promise rejects.

Let’s write some onFulfilled and onRejected functions!

Using catch() with Promises

One way to write cleaner code is to follow a principle called separation of concerns. Separation of concerns means organizing code into distinct sections each handling a specific task. It enables us to quickly navigate our code and know where to look if something isn’t working.

Remember, .then() will return a promise with the same settled value as the promise it was called on if no appropriate handler was provided. This implementation allows us to separate our resolved logic from our rejected logic. Instead of passing both handlers into one .then(), we can chain a second .then() with a failure handler to a first .then() with a success handler and both cases will be handled.

  .then((resolvedValue) => {
  .then(null, (rejectionReason) => {


Since JavaScript doesn’t mind whitespace, we follow a common convention of putting each part of this chain on a new line to make it easier to read. To create even more readable code, we can use a different promise function: .catch().

The .catch() function takes only one argument, onRejected. In the case of a rejected promise, this failure handler will be invoked with the reason for rejection. Using .catch() accomplishes the same thing as using a .then() with only a failure handler.

Let’s look an example using .catch():

  .then((resolvedValue) => {
  .catch((rejectionReason) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening in the example code:

  • prom is a promise which randomly either resolves with ‘Yay!’ or rejects with ‘Ohhh noooo!’.
  • We pass a success handler to .then()and a failure handler to .catch().
  • If the promise resolves, .then()‘s success handler will be invoked with ‘Yay!’.
  • If the promise rejects, .then() will return a promise with the same rejection reason as the original promise and .catch()‘s failure handler will be invoked with that rejection reason.

Let’s practice writing .catch() functions.

Chaining Multiple Promises

One common pattern we’ll see with asynchronous programming is multiple operations which depend on each other to execute or that must be executed in a certain order. We might make one request to a database and use the data returned to us to make another request and so on! Let’s illustrate this with another cleaning example, washing clothes:

We take our dirty clothes and put them in the washing machine. If the clothes are cleaned, then we’ll want to put them in the dryer. After the dryer runs, if the clothes are dry, then we can fold them and put them away.

This process of chaining promises together is called composition. Promises are designed with composition in mind! Here’s a simple promise chain in code:

.then((firstResolveVal) => {
  return secondPromiseFunction(firstResolveVal);
.then((secondResolveVal) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening in the example:

  • We invoke a function firstPromiseFunction() which returns a promise.
  • We invoke .then() with an anonymous function as the success handler.
  • Inside the success handler we return a new promise— the result of invoking a second function, secondPromiseFunction() with the first promise’s resolved value.
  • We invoke a second .then() to handle the logic for the second promise settling.
  • Inside that .then(), we have a success handler which will log the second promise’s resolved value to the console.

In order for our chain to work properly, we had to return the promise secondPromiseFunction(firstResolveVal). This ensured that the return value of the first .then() was our second promise rather than the default return of a new promise with the same settled value as the initial.

Let’s write some promise chains!

Avoiding Common Mistakes

Promise composition allows for much more readable code than the nested callback syntax that preceded it. However, it can still be easy to make mistakes. Let’s go over two common mistakes with promise composition.

Mistake 1: Nesting promises instead of chaining them.

.then((firstResolveVal) => {
  return returnsSecondValue(firstResolveVal)
    .then((secondResolveVal) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening in the above code:

  • We invoke returnsFirstPromise() which returns a promise.
  • We invoke .then() with a success handler.
  • Inside the success handler, we invoke returnsSecondValue() with firstResolveVal which will return a new promise.
  • We invoke a second .then() to handle the logic for the second promise settling all inside the first then()!
  • Inside that second .then(), we have a success handler which will log the second promise’s resolved value to the console.

Instead of having a clean chain of promises, we’ve nested the logic for one inside the logic of the other. Imagine if we were handling five or ten promises!

Mistake 2: Forgetting to return a promise.

.then((firstResolveVal) => {
.then((someVal) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening in the example:

  • We invoke returnsFirstPromise() which returns a promise.
  • We invoke .then() with a success handler.
  • Inside the success handler, we create our second promise, but we forget to returnit!
  • We invoke a second .then(). It’s supposed to handle the logic for the second promise, but since we didn’t return, this .then() is invoked on a promise with the same settled value as the original promise!

Since forgetting to return our promise won’t throw an error, this can be a really tricky thing to debug!

Using Promise.all()

When done correctly, promise composition is a great way to handle situations where asynchronous operations depend on each other or execution order matters. What if we’re dealing with multiple promises, but we don’t care about the order? Let’s think in terms of cleaning again.

For us to consider our house clean, we need our clothes to dry, our trash bins emptied, and the dishwasher to run. We need all of these tasks to complete but not in any particular order. Furthermore, since they’re all getting done asynchronously, they should really all be happening at the same time!

To maximize efficiency, we should use concurrency, multiple asynchronous operations happening together. With promises, we can do this with the function Promise.all().

Promise.all() accepts an array of promises as its argument and returns a single promise. That single promise will settle in one of two ways:

  • If every promise in the argument array resolves, the single promise returned from Promise.all() will resolve with an array containing the resolve value from each promise in the argument array.
  • If any promise from the argument array rejects, the single promise returned from Promise.all() will immediately reject with the reason that promise rejected. This behavior is sometimes referred to as failing fast.

Let’s look at a code example:

let myPromises = Promise.all([returnsPromOne(), returnsPromTwo(), returnsPromThree()]);

  .then((arrayOfValues) => {
  .catch((rejectionReason) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening:

  • We declare myPromises assigned to invoking Promise.all().
  • We invoke Promise.all() with an array of three promises— the returned values from functions.
  • We invoke .then() with a success handler which will print the array of resolved values if each promise resolves successfully.
  • We invoke .catch() with a failure handler which will print the first rejection message if any promise rejects.

Async Await

Often in web development, we need to handle asynchronous actions— actions we can wait on while moving on to other tasks. We make requests to networks, databases, or any number of similar operations. JavaScript is non-blocking: instead of stopping the execution of code while it waits, JavaScript uses an event-loop which allows it to efficiently execute other tasks while it awaits the completion of these asynchronous actions.

Originally, JavaScript used callback functions to handle asynchronous actions. The problem with callbacks is that they encourage complexly nested code which quickly becomes difficult to read, debug, and scale. With ES6, JavaScript integrated native promises which allow us to write significantly more readable code. JavaScript is continually improving, and ES8 provides a new syntax for handling our asynchronous action, async…await. The async…await syntax allows us to write asynchronous code that reads similarly to traditional synchronous, imperative programs.

The async…await syntax is syntactic sugar— it doesn’t introduce new functionality into the language, but rather introduces a new syntax for using promises and generators. Both of these were already built in to the language. Despite this, async…awaitpowerfully improves the readability and scalability of our code. Let’s learn how to use it!

The async Keyword

The async keyword is used to write functions that handle asynchronous actions. We wrap our asynchronous logic inside a function prepended with the async keyword. Then, we invoke that function.

async function myFunc() {
  // Function body here



We’ll be using async function declarations throughout this lesson, but we can also create async function expressions:

const myFunc = async () => {
  // Function body here



async functions always return a promise. This means we can use traditional promise syntax, like .then() and .catch with our async functions. An async function will return in one of three ways:

  • If there’s nothing returned from the function, it will return a promise with a resolved value of undefined.
  • If there’s a non-promise value returned from the function, it will return a promise resolved to that value.
  • If a promise is returned from the function, it will simply return that promise
async function fivePromise() {
  return 5;

.then(resolvedValue => {
  })  // Prints 5


In the example above, even though we return 5 inside the function body, what’s actually returned when we invoke fivePromise() is a promise with a resolved value of 5.

Let’s write an async function!

Writing async Functions

We’ve seen that the await keyword halts the execution of an async function until a promise is no longer pending. Don’t forget the await keyword! It may seem obvious, but this can be a tricky mistake to catch because our function will still run— it just won’t have the desired results.

We’re going to explore this using the following function, which returns a promise that resolves to ‘Yay, I resolved!’ after a 1 second delay:

let myPromise = () => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      resolve(‘Yay, I resolved!’)
    }, 1000);


Now we’ll write two async functions which invoke myPromise():

async function noAwait() {
let value = myPromise();

async function yesAwait() {
let value = await myPromise();

noAwait(); // Prints: Promise { <pending> }
yesAwait(); // Prints: Yay, I resolved!


In the first async function, noAwait(), we left off the await keyword before myPromise(). In the second, yesAwait(), we included it. The noAwait() function logs Promise { <pending> } to the console. Without the await keyword, the function execution wasn’t paused. The console.log() on the following line was executed before the promise had resolved.

Remember that the await operator returns the resolved value of a promise. When used properly in yesAwait(), the variable valuewas assigned the resolved value of the myPromise() promise, whereas in noAwait(), value was assigned the promise object itself.

Handling Dependent Promises

The true beauty of async…await is when we have a series of asynchronous actions which depend on one another. For example, we may make a network request based on a query to a database. In that case, we would need to wait to make the network request until we had the results from the database. With native promise syntax, we use a chain of .then() functions making sure to return correctly each one:

function nativePromiseVersion() {
    .then((firstValue) => {
        return returnsSecondPromise(firstValue);
  .then((secondValue) => {


Let’s break down what’s happening in the nativePromiseVersion() function:

  • Within our function we use two functions which return promises: returnsFirstPromise() and returnsSecondPromise().
  • We invoke returnsFirstPromise() and ensure that the first promise resolved by using .then().
  • In the callback of our first .then(), we log the resolved value of the first promise, firstValue, and then return returnsSecondPromise(firstValue).
  • We use another .then() to print the second promise’s resolved value to the console.

Here’s how we’d write an async function to accomplish the same thing:

async function asyncAwaitVersion() {
let firstValue = await returnsFirstPromise();
let secondValue = await returnsSecondPromise(firstValue);


Let’s break down what’s happening in our asyncAwaitVersion() function:

  • We mark our function as async.
  • Inside our function, we create a variable firstValue assigned await returnsFirstPromise(). This means firstValue is assigned the resolved value of the awaited promise.
  • Next, we log firstValue to the console.
  • Then, we create a variable secondValueassigned to await returnsSecondPromise(firstValue). Therefore, secondValue is assigned this promise’s resolved value.
  • Finally, we log secondValue to the console.

Though using the async…await syntax can save us some typing, the length reduction isn’t the main point. Given the two versions of the function, the async…await version more closely resembles synchronous code, which helps developers maintain and debug their code. The async…await syntax also makes it easy to store and refer to resolved values from promises further back in our chain which is a much more difficult task with native promise syntax. Let’s create some asyncfunctions with multiple await statements!

Handling Errors

When .catch() is used with a long promise chain, there is no indication of where in the chain the error was thrown. This can make debugging challenging.

With async…await, we use try…catchstatements for error handling. By using this syntax, not only are we able to handle errors in the same way we do with synchronous code, but we can also catch both synchronous and asynchronous errors. This makes for easier debugging!

async function usingTryCatch() {
try {
  let resolveValue = await asyncFunction(‘thing that will fail’);
  let secondValue = await secondAsyncFunction(resolveValue);
} catch (err) {
  // Catches any errors in the try block



Remember, since async functions return promises we can still use native promise’s .catch() with an async function

async function usingPromiseCatch() {
  let resolveValue = await asyncFunction(‘thing that will fail’);

let rejectedPromise = usingPromiseCatch();
rejectedPromise.catch((rejectValue) => {


This is sometimes used in the global scope to catch final errors in complex code.

Handling Independent Promises

Remember that await halts the execution of our async function. This allows us to conveniently write synchronous-style code to handle dependent promises. But what if our async function contains multiple promises which are not dependent on the results of one another to execute?

async function waiting() {
const firstValue = await firstAsyncThing();
const secondValue = await secondAsyncThing();
console.log(firstValue, secondValue);

async function concurrent() {
const firstPromise = firstAsyncThing();
const secondPromise = secondAsyncThing();
console.log(await firstPromise, await secondPromise);


In the waiting() function, we pause our function until the first promise resolves, then we construct the second promise. Once that resolves, we print both resolved values to the console.

In our concurrent() function, both promises are constructed without using await. We then await each of their resolutions to print them to the console.

With our concurrent() function both promises’ asynchronous operations can be run simultaneously. If possible, we want to get started on each asynchronous operation as soon as possible! Within our async functions we should still take advantage of concurrency, the ability to perform asynchronous actions at the same time.

Note: if we have multiple truly independent promises that we would like to execute fully in parallel, we must use individual .then()functions and avoid halting our execution with await.

Await Promise.all()

Another way to take advantage of concurrency when we have multiple promises which can be executed simultaneously is to await a Promise.all().

We can pass an array of promises as the argument to Promise.all(), and it will return a single promise. This promise will resolve when all of the promises in the argument array have resolved. This promise’s resolve value will be an array containing the resolved values of each promise from the argument array.

async function asyncPromAll() {
  const resultArray = await Promise.all([asyncTask1(), asyncTask2(), asyncTask3(), asyncTask4()]);
  for (let i = 0; i<resultArray.length; i++){


In our above example, we await the resolution of a Promise.all(). This Promise.all() was invoked with an argument array containing four promises (returned from required-in functions). Next, we loop through our resultArray, and log each item to the console. The first element in resultArray is the resolved value of the asyncTask1() promise, the second is the value of the asyncTask2() promise, and so on.

Promise.all() allows us to take advantage of asynchronicity— each of the four asynchronous tasks can process concurrently. Promise.all() also has the benefit of failing fast, meaning it won’t wait for the rest of the asynchronous actions to complete once any one has rejected. As soon as the first promise in the array rejects, the promise returned from Promise.all() will reject with that reason. As it was when working with native promises, Promise.all() is a good choice if multiple asynchronous tasks are all required, but none must wait for any other before executing.


Awesome job! Promises are a difficult concept even for experienced developers, so pat yourself on the back. You’ve learned a ton about asynchronous JavaScript and promises. Let’s review:

  • Promises are JavaScript objects that represent the eventual result of an asynchronous operation.
  • Promises can be in one of three states: pending, resolved, or rejected.
  • A promise is settled if it is either resolved or rejected.
  • We construct a promise by using the new keyword and passing an executor function to the Promise constructor method.
  • setTimeout() is a Node function which delays the execution of a callback function using the event-loop.
  • We use .then() with a success handler callback containing the logic for what should happen if a promise resolves.
  • We use .catch() with a failure handler callback containing the logic for what should happen if a promise rejects.
  • Promise composition enables us to write complex, asynchronous code that’s still readable. We do this by chaining multiple .then()‘s and .catch()‘s.
  • To use promise composition correctly, we have to remember to return promises constructed within a .then().

We should chain multiple promises rather than nesting them.

Awesome work getting the hang of the async…await syntax! Let’s review what you’ve learned:

  • async…await is syntactic sugar built on native JavaScript promises and generators.
  • We declare an async function with the keyword async.
  • Inside an async function we use the await operator to pause execution of our function until an asynchronous action completes and the awaited promise is no longer pending .
  • await returns the resolved value of the awaited promise.
  • We can write multiple await statements to produce code that reads like synchronous code.
  • We use try…catch statements within our async functions for error handling.

We should still take advantage of concurrency by writing async functions that allow asynchronous actions to happen in concurrently whenever possible.