# Control Flow

## Control Flow: An Introduction

In Python, your script will execute from the top down, until there is nothing left to run. It is your job to include gateways, known as conditional statements, to tell the computer when it should execute certain blocks of code. If these conditions are met, then run this function.

Over the course of this lesson, you will learn how to build conditional statements using boolean expressions, and manage the control flow in your code.

## Boolean Expressions

In order to build control flow into our program, we want to be able to check if something is true or not. A boolean expression is a statement that can either be True or False.

The question, “Is today a weekday?” can be written as a boolean expression:

 Today is a weekday.

This expression can be True if today is Tuesday, or it can be False if today is Saturday. There are no other options.

## Relational Operators: Equals and Not Equals

Now that we understand what boolean expressions are, let’s learn to create them in Python. We can create a boolean expression by using relational operators.

Relational operators compare two items and return either True or False. For this reason, you will sometimes hear them called comparators.

The two boolean operators we’ll cover first are:

• Equals: ==
• Not equals: !=

These operators compare two items and return True or False if they are equal or not.

We can create boolean expressions by comparing two values using these operators:

 >>> 1 == 1 True >>> 2 != 4 True >>> 3 == 5 False >>> ‘7’ == 7 False

Each of these is an example of a boolean expression. >>> is the prompt when you run Python in your terminal, which you can then use to evaluate simple expressions, such as these.

Why is the last statement false? The marks in ‘7’ make it a string, which is different from the integer value 7, so they are not equal. When using relational operators it is important to always be mindful of type.

## Boolean Variables

Before we go any further, let’s talk a little bit about True and False. You may notice that when you type them in the code editor (with uppercase T and F), they appear in a different color than variables or strings. This is because True and False are their own special type: bool.

True and False are the only bool types, and any variable that is assigned one of these values is called a boolean variable. Boolean variables can be created in several ways. The easiest way is to simply assign True or False to a variable:

 set_to_true = True set_to_false = False

You can also set a variable equal to a boolean expression.

 bool_one = 5 != 7 bool_two = 1 + 1 != 2 bool_three = 3 * 3 == 9

These variables now contain boolean values, so when you reference them they will only return the True or False values of the expression they were assigned.

 >>>bool_three True >>>bool_four False >>>bool_five True

## If Statements

The decision-making process of “Is it raining? If so, bring an umbrella” is a conditional statement. Here it is phrased in a different way:

 If it is raining then bring an umbrella.

Can you pick out the boolean expression here?

Right, “it is raining” is the boolean expression, and this conditional statement is checking to see if it is True.

If “it is raining” == True then the rest of the conditional statement will be executed and you will bring an umbrella.

This is the form of a conditional statement:

 If [it is raining] then [bring an umbrella]

In Python, it looks very similar:

 if is_raining:   bring_umbrella()

You’ll notice that instead of “then” we have a colon, :. That tells the computer that what’s coming next is what should be executed if the condition is met. Let’s take a look at another conditional statement:

 if 2 == 4 – 2:   print(“apple”)

Will this code print apple to the terminal? Yes, because the condition of the if statement, 2 == 4 – 2 is True.

## Relational Operators II

Now that we’ve added conditional statements to our toolkit for building control flow, let’s explore more ways to create boolean expressions. So far we know two relational operators, equals and not equals, but there are a ton (well, four) more:

• Greater than: >
• Less than: <
• Greater than or equal to: >=
• Less than or equal to: <=

Let’s say we’re running a movie streaming platform and we want to write a function that checks if our users are over 13 when showing them a PG-13 movie. We could write something like:

 def age_check(age):   if age >= 13:     return True

This function will take the user’s age and compare it to the number 13. If age is greater than or equal to 13 it will return True.

## Boolean Operators: and

Often, the conditions you want to check in your conditional statement will require more than one boolean expression to cover. In these cases, you can build larger boolean expressions using boolean operators. These operators (also known as logical operators) combine smaller boolean expressions into larger boolean expressions.

There are three boolean operators that we will cover:

• and
• or
• not

and combines two boolean expressions and evaluates as True if both its components are True, but False otherwise.

Consider the example

 Oranges are a fruit and carrots are a vegetable.

This boolean expression consists of two smaller expressions, oranges are a fruit and carrots are a vegetable, both of which are True and connected by the boolean operator and, so the entire expression is True.

Let’s look at an example of some AND statements in Python:

 >>> (1 + 1 == 2) and (2 + 2 == 4) True >>> (1 + 1 == 2) and (2 < 1) False >>> (1 > 9) and (5 != 6) False >>> (0 == 10) and (1 + 1 == 1) False

Notice that in the second and third examples, even though part of the expression is True, the entire expression as a whole is Falsebecause the other statement is False. The fourth statement is also False because both components are False.

## Boolean Operators: or

The boolean operator or combines two expressions into a larger expression that is True if either component is True.

Consider the statement

 Oranges are a fruit or apples are a vegetable.

This statement is composed of two expressions: oranges are a fruit which is True and apples are a vegetable which is False. Because the two expressions are connected by the or operator, the entire statement is True. Only one component needs to be True for an or statement to be True.

In English, or implies that if one component is True, then the other component must be False. This is not true in Python. If an orstatement has two True components, it is also True.

Let’s take a look at a couple example in Python:

 >>> True or (3 + 4 == 7) True >>> (1 – 1 == 0) or False True >>> (2 < 0) or True True >>> (3 == 8) or (3 > 4) False

Notice that each or statement that has at least one True component is True, but the final statement has two False components, so it is False.

## Boolean Operators: not

The final boolean operator we will cover is not. This operator is straightforward: when applied to any boolean expression it reverses the boolean value. So if we have a True statement and apply a not operator we get a False statement.

 not True == False not False == True

Consider the following statement:

 Oranges are not a fruit.

Here, we took the True statement oranges are a fruit and added a not operator to make the False statement oranges are not a fruit.

This example in English is slightly different from the way it would appear in Python because in Python we add the not operator to the very beginning of the statement. Let’s take a look at some of those:

 >>> not 1 + 1 == 2 False >>> not 7 < 0 True

## Else Statements

else statements allow us to elegantly describe what we want our code to do when certain conditions are not met.

else statements always appear in conjunction with if statements. Consider our waking-up example to see how this works:

 if weekday:   wake_up(“6:30”) else:   sleep_in()

In this way, we can build if statements that execute different code if conditions are or are not met. This prevents us from needing to write if statements for each possible condition, we can instead write a blanket else statement for all the times the condition is not met.

Let’s return to our age_check function for our movie streaming platform. Previously, all it did was check if the user’s age was over 13 and if so return True. We can use an else statement to return a message in the event the user is too young to watch the movie.

 def age_check(age):   if age >= 13:     return True   else:     return “Sorry, you must be 13 or older to watch this movie.”

## Else If Statements

We can use elif statements to control the order we want our program to check each of our conditional statements. First, the if statement is checked, then each elif statement is checked from top to bottom, then finally the else code is executed if none of the previous conditions have been met.

Let’s take a look at this in practice. The following function will display a “thank you” message after someone donates to a charity: It takes the donation amount and prints a message based on how much was donated.

 def thank_you(donation):   if donation >= 1000:     print(“You have achieved platinum donation status!”)   elif donation >= 500:     print(“You have achieved gold donation status!”)   elif donation >= 100:     print(“You have achieved silver donation status!”)   else:     print(“You have achieved bronze donation status!”)

Take a second to think about this function. What would happen if all of the elif statements were simply if statements? If you donated \$1000.00, then the first three messages would all print because each if condition had been met.

But because we used elif statements, it checks each condition sequentially and only prints one message. If I donate \$600.00, the code first checks if that is over \$1000.00, which it is not, then it checks if it’s over \$500.00, which it is, so it prints that message, then because all of the other statements are elif and else, none of them get checked and no more messages get printed.

## Try and Except Statements

if, elif, and else statements aren’t the only way to build a control flow into your program. You can use try and except statements to check for possible errors that a user might encounter.

The general syntax of a try and except statement is

 try:     # some statement except ErrorName:     # some statement

First, the statement under try will be executed. If at some point an exception is raised during this execution, such as a NameError or a ValueError and that exception matches the keyword in the except statement, then the try statement will terminate and the except statement will execute.

Let’s take a look at this in an application. I want to write a function that takes two numbers, a and b as an input and then returns a divided by b. But, there is a possibility that b is zero, which will cause an error, so I want to include a try and except flow to catch this error.

 def divides(a,b):   try:     result = a / b     print (result)   except ZeroDivisionError:     print (“Can’t divide by zero!”)

Now that you see how it works, try to write one yourself.

## Review

Great job! We covered a ton of material in this lesson and you’ve increased the number of tools in your Python toolkit by several fold. Let’s review what you’ve learned this lesson:

• Boolean expressions are statements that can be either True or False
• A boolean variable is a variable that is set to either True or False.
• You can create boolean expressions using relational operators:
• Equals: ==
• Not equals: !=
• Greater than: >
• Greater than or equal to: >=
• Less than: <
• Less than or equal to: <=
• if statements can be used to create control flow in your code.
• else statements can be used to execute code when the conditions of an if statement are not met.
• elif statements can be used to build additional checks into your if statements

try and except statements can be used to build error control into your code.